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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"


COE]Ugation,~There is only one form of conjugation for all verbs. Tense and
Mood are indicated by prefixes, number and person by the subject. When the subject is
a noun, the pronoun is inserted before the verb.             __________________^______^

, _______ _ — -------- -------------- - -------------- — — PEESEN3!

$g& long, I am   .
	Ngi  long,  we are,
	$05 Za /0n0,  I •was
	Ngi ICL long, we were.
	flgtfn    long,   I shall be.
	Ngi'n long, we shall be.

Me (masc } or phS (fern.) long, &ou
	P&t Jon^yeare
	Me  or phv,   la
 long, fchou wast.
	Phi la long, ye were
	Me'n   or   jpTw'n long, thou shalt be
	Phi'n long, ye shall be.

V (maso.) or ka (fern.) long, he orsKe is.
	JK Zowgr, they are
	Z7 or ka la long, he or she "was
	Ei la long, they were
	EPtt or fca'w Jongr, he or she will be.
	KVn long, they will be.

These simple tenses are rendered more definite or emphatic by various devices
signofthepsst, when added to lah, sign of the potential, has the sense of the complete
perfect: nga la lah long, I have or had been. Jn (apocopated after a vowelto 'n)9
with sa added, emphasises the future. In the subjunctive mood (after haba, if), da is
inserted to indicate a hypothetical condition: haba nga da long, if I be; haba nga da la
long, if I were. Other complex tenses are similarly formed with other particles,

Tbe Imperative Mood is either (1) the simple root, long, be, or (2) to long, or (8) to
long ho (emphatic).

The Infinitive of Purpose is composed of ba, the relative particle, and yn, the future
particle, prefixed to the root: ba'n long, to be, or, for the purpose of being. The Infinitive
of State is Jcajing long or Jca ba long, being.

Participles.—Ret long, being ; ba la long, been.
Noun of Agency.—Nong long.

There is no Conjunctive Participle, such as plays so great a part in the syntax of
Bara and other Tibeto-Burman languages.

The Passive Voice is formed by using the verb impersonally and putting the subject
into the accusative case with ia. In the present, dang (particle of continuance) is pre-
fixed to the verb : thus (leit, to love),—I am loved=<te# 'ieit ia nga; I was loved=r la
teitia nga; I shall be loved=?/^ wit ia nga.

Potentiality is indicated by the verb lah, and Necessity by the verb dei, both used
impersonally, with the feminine < article' (for the neuter) fa, and followed by the relative
particle ba. Thus, fa hh ba nga la long, I might be (kt. it is possible that I was): fa del
m nga ba n long, I ought to be (lit. it is necessary for me to be). Lah, in the present, 5s
construed personally (nga lah ba'n long, I can be), and impersonally only in the past and
future: dei is impersonal throughout.

tad. da indicate the Indefinite Present: nga da trei, I am working.

"""*"""Slgn is W*> apocopated after vowels to '«; ng&'m long, I am not.   In

• _ ... .11»i«     •                                         .


Negative is mt .- teat thoh or wat ttok me, write not,